First of all, the fitness of the elderly
For the elderly fitness exercise, it is necessary to master the appropriate exercise intensity and exercise under the guidance of scientific exercise prescription.
In 1990, the American Sports Medicine Association recommended 60% of the highest heart rate (220 years old) of the exercise intensity threshold for the elderly, equivalent to 50% of the maximum oxygen uptake rate, and the heart can be 110-130 beats/min, 3 times a week.20-60 minutes each time.
However, for healthy elderly people over 65 years old, the above-mentioned exercise intensity is often exercised, and they will feel tired, wheezing and sweating. If they are elderly people who have not exercised or sick elderly people, they will soon be unable to stand it.Stop exercising.
In response to these circumstances, the American Heart Association issued a formal statement in 1992, a traditional view of the American Sports Medicine Association, clearly pointed out: 1, the lack of physical activity is the main risk factor for coronary heart disease.
2, any strength or type of physical activity can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.
3, whether it is coronary heart disease patients, or healthy people, some benefit from physical activity habits.
In order to encourage more Americans to participate in fitness activities, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Sports Medicine Association jointly recommended, and participated in several academic groups including the American Heart Association, the American Presidential Committee on Physical and Sports, and the American Institute of Aging.In January, he published a paper entitled “Physical Activity and Public Health”, which questioned the intensity movement. First, the exercise plan originally recommended by the American Sports Medicine Association was too strong; the new program extended the above traditional model toPhysical activity – a healthy model, focusing on activities as well as even small amounts of exercise, can also achieve the same health benefits.
Second, it is considered that the accumulation of intermittent, short-term (such as 10 minutes) physical activity is also a suitable method for fitness.
The paper also introduced the results of the study, such as the same intensity, every 30 minutes, another group of 10 minutes each time, completed in 3 times, the physical strength after the replacement exercise was significantly improved, and there was almost no significant difference.
Third, think that the movement can be flexible and diverse, as long as the activity is good.
Some of the projects that have been classified as living, working and entertainment have also been included, and it is proposed to participate in regular projects (jogging, walking, stepping on exercise bikes, swimming, playing, etc.) in one round, or several different activities.
For example, instead of taking the elevator by climbing stairs; replacing the car by walking; doing gymnastics or stepping on the exercise bike while watching TV; gardening, housework, dancing, and playing games with children.
In particular, it is typical of moderate physical activity, such as lawn cutting and home repairs that men often do.
Fourth, it is recommended that each American adult engage in intermediate physical activity every day, including a short-term activity that gradually reaches 30 minutes.
This is roughly equivalent to a 200 kilocalorie transition per day.
Fifthly, it is considered that it is biased towards gymnastics, tension and weight-bearing activities. These reductions and strength exercises have been classified as taboos in the past. They are considered to be unnecessary and can improve the balance function and reduce the fall and collapse.Muscle strength.
Chinese Taijiquan has been studied by American scholars and believes that it can reduce the onset of cardiovascular disease and is widely welcomed by Westerners.
According to the development trend of international physical activity and rehabilitation theory and practice, we believe that the above-mentioned fitness exercise for the elderly should also pay attention to the following points: 1. The intensity of fitness for the elderly should start from mild activities.
According to the study, people who have long-term adherence to low-energy exercise are less likely to participate in or occasionally participate in exercise, which can reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, senile dementia by 35%, and reduce mortality.
Exercise time can be added once or once a day for more than 30 minutes. Those who have sufficient strength can transition to moderate. Those with good health can start directly from moderate exercise. Severe exercise should be cautious. At this time, exercise should be classified as taboo.
Even the consumption of quantum per day can be lower at the beginning, gradually increasing to 150-200 kcal per day.
2, the type of fitness for the elderly should be flexible and pay attention to recreation.
Tai Chi, twisting Yangko, jumping old disco, playing gateball, similar to gymnastics, walking is also a good way to exercise.
Older people over the age of 70 insist on walking for 30 minutes a day, in men’s bone salt content, lung function and ability to climb the stairs; in women’s muscle strength and speed up the stairs, there are obvious benefits.
At present, there are not many researches on the fitness of the elderly and the elderly who have been in bed for a long time. There are many activities such as chair exercises and bed exercises in foreign countries, which deserve more and further research.
3, such as exercise in the morning, the amount of exercise should be smaller.
People are accustomed to exercise in the morning, but the morning coronary artery tension is high, sympathetic nerve excitability is also higher, painless myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction annihilation and sudden death are also mostly from 6 am to 12 noon, so shouldTry to choose afternoon and evening activities.
4, a hundred steps after a meal is uncertain science, should be careful.
There is an old saying in China: “After a meal, you can live ninety-nine.” From the perspective of modern medicine, the elderly should not advocate a hundred steps after a meal, because eating especially for people with cardiovascular disease isA load.
The Hebei Institute of Geriatrics studied the postprandial exercise of the elderly several years ago. It was found that the blood pressure dropped from 139 mm Hg to 129 mm Hg in the 60 minutes after the meal, and the heart rate increased 15 times/min.After exercise, orthostatic hypotension accounted for 25%, indicating that postprandial exercise has a negative effect on the cardiovascular system, but the ECG does not change.
Therefore, the elderly should avoid exercising after a meal, especially within two hours after a full meal.
5, to maintain the health effects of physical activity depends on long-term adherence.
After a few weeks of general suspension, this effect gradually disappears. As for illness or in the hot summer season, you can temporarily stop training.
In short, the elderly must participate in fitness exercises: (1), from person to person.
Each human body has different strengths and different health conditions. The number of participating projects and sports cannot be the same.
Exercise is expensive.
(3), step by step.Activity intensity should be mild and moderate.
(4), check the effect.
Consult a doctor with a sports medicine literacy every six months or one year.